The United Kingdom (UK) used to be one of the member states of the European Union but left the European Union on January 31, 2020. In June 2016, the United Kingdom held a referendum on its membership in the European Union. Then negotiations began on the terms of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union (Brexit). Since then, relations between the European Union and the United Kingdom are mainly governed by 4 matches:
- Withdrawal Agreement
- Trade and Cooperation Agreement
- Information Security Agreement
- Nuclear Energy Agreement
These agreements have been signed and ratified by the European Union and the United Kingdom and cover a wide range of policy areas. They guarantee fair competitionAnd the cooperation In areas of common interest and protection civil rights.
EU Withdrawal Agreement
After the United Kingdom’s referendum on its membership in the European Union in June 2016, the United Kingdom and the European Union began negotiations on the terms of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union (Brexit). Brexit negotiations began in June 2017 and eventually culminated in the Withdrawal Agreement, which entered into force at midnight on January 31, 2020.
contains terms Organized withdrawal of the United Kingdom From the European Union in accordance with Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union.
Agreements on citizens’ rights and financial settlement have also been concluded between the European Union and the United Kingdom. The difficult border between Ireland and Northern Ireland was avoided by a specific protocol of the agreement.
Post-Brexit Agreements from the European Union
After the United Kingdom’s formal withdrawal from the European Union on January 31, 2020, the two sides began negotiations about what their relationship should look like in the future. These negotiations actually began during the transition period (1 February 2020 – 31 December 2020), when the UK is no longer a member of the European Union but is still bound by certain EU rules.
In the end there was a file Trade and Cooperation Agreement Which will shape relations after Britain leaves the European Union.
The agreement was signed on December 30, 2020 and formally entered into force on May 1, 2021. However, it has already been provisionally implemented since January 1, 2021.
This Trade and Cooperation Agreement governs a Equal chances And the Respect for basic rights. The agreement includes:
- A free trade agreement with ambitious economic, social, environmental and fisheries cooperation
- Close partnership for the security of citizens
- Comprehensive governance framework
In addition to the Trade and Cooperation Agreement, the European Union and the United Kingdom have also negotiated, signed and ratified two other agreements: the Agreement on Information Security and agree on Nuclear Energy.
While these agreements resolve a number of important issues, the impact of Brexit on citizens and businesses in the EU and the UK continues to be felt.
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